Fundamentals of Anatomy Physiology, 7th Edition

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Fundamentals of Anatomy Physiology, 7th Edition

English | 1264 pages | Pearson Academic Computing; 7th Edition (2005) | 0805372989 | PDF | 16.44 Mb

The organization at each level determines not only the structural characteristics, but also the functions, of higher levels. For example, the arrangement of atoms and molecules at the chemical level creates the protein filaments that, at the cellular level, give cardiac muscle cells the ability to contract powerfully. At the tissue level, these cells are linked, forming cardiac muscle tissue. The structure of the tissue ensures that the contractions are coordinated, producing a heartbeat. When that beat occurs, the internal anatomy of the heart, an organ, enables it to function as a pump. The heart is filled with blood and connected to the blood vessels, and the pumping action circulates blood through the vessels of the cardiovascular system. Through interactions with the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and other systems, the cardiovascular system performs a variety of functions essential to the survival of the organism.

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