X-Nuclei Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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X-Nuclei Magnetic Resonance Imaging

English | 2022 | ISBN: ‎ 981480097X | 479 pages | True PDF | 35.33 MB

Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prominent clinical imaging modality used to diagnose and study diseases in vivo. It is principally based on the detection of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms (the proton; symbol 1H) in water molecules in tissues. X-nuclei MRI (also called non-proton MRI) is based on the detection of the nuclei of other atoms (X-nuclei) in the body, such as sodium (23Na), phosphorus (31P), chlorine (35Cl), potassium (39K), deuterium (2H), oxygen (17O), lithium (7Li), and fluorine (19F) using modified software and hardware. X-nuclei MRI can provide fundamental, new metabolic information related to cellular energetic metabolism and ion homeostasis in tissues that cannot be assessed using standard hydrogen MRI.

This book is an introduction to the techniques and biomedical applications of X-nuclei MRI. It describes the theoretical and experimental basis of X-nuclei MRI, the limitations of this technique, and its potential biomedical applications for the diagnosis and prognosis of many disorders or for quantitative monitoring of therapies in a wide range of diseases. The book is divided into four parts. Part I includes a general description of X-nuclei nuclear magnetic resonance physics and imaging. Part II deals with the MRI of endogenous nuclei such as 23Na, 31P, 35Cl, and 39K; Part III, the MRI of endogenous/exogenous nuclei such as 2H and 17O; and Part IV, the MRI of exogenous nuclei such as 7Li and 19F. The book is illustrated throughout with many representative figures and includes references and reading suggestions in each section. It is the first book to introduce X-nuclei MRI to researchers, clinicians, students, and general readers who are interested in the development of imaging methods for assessing new metabolic information in tissues in vivo in order to diagnose diseases, improve prognosis, or measure the efficiency of therapies in a timely and quantitative manner. It is an ideal starting point for a clinical or scientific research project in non-proton MRI techniques.

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